Publications

Dr. Joseph Merola's Google Scholar:
https://scholar.google.com/citations?user=lfugPyUAAAAJ&hl=en&oi=ao

Top Publications

Hobart, D.B.; Patel, V.G.; Pendergrass, H.; Florio, J.; Merola, J.S. Self-assembly motifs of water in crystals of palladium β-amino acid complexes influenced by methyl substitution on the amino acid backbone. Crystals 2019, 9, 1–12. DOI: 10.3390/cryst9110590

DuChane, C.M.; Karpin, G.W.; Ehrich, M.; Falkinham, J.O.; Merola, J.S. Iridium piano stool complexes with activity against S. aureus and MRSA: it is past time to truly think outside of the box. Medchemcomm 2019, 10, 1391–1398.  DOI:  10.1039/C9MD00140A

DuChane, C. M., Brown, L. C., Dozier, V. S., & Merola, J. S. (2017). Synthesis, Characterization, and Antimicrobial Activity of Rh III and Ir III β-Diketonato Piano-Stool Compounds. Organometallics, acs.organomet.7b00742. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.organomet.7b00742

Brown, L. C.; Ressegue, E.; Merola, J. S. Rapid Access to Derivatized, Dimeric, Ring-Substituted Dichloro(cyclopentadienyl)rhodium(III) and Iridium(III) Complexes. Organometallics 2016, 35, 4014–4022.

Ladipo, F. T.; Merola, J. S. Addition of N-H Bonds to Iridium: Synthesis and Characterization of N-Ir-H Complexes and the Observation That an Iridium N-Bonded Indole Ring Becomes Activated for Michael Addition to Alkynes. Polyhedron 2015, 90.

Morris, D.M.; McGeagh, M.; De Pena, D.; Merola, J.S. Extending the range of pentasubstituted cyclopentadienyl compounds: The synthesis of a series of tetramethyl(alkyl or aryl)cyclopentadienes (Cp*(R)), their iridium complexes and their catalytic activity for asymmetric transfer hydrogenation. Polyhedron 2014, 84, 120-135.  (Invited paper for special edition in honor of John Bercaw.)

Hobart, D. B., Jr.; Berg, M. A. G.; Merola, J. S. Bis-glycinato complexes of palladium(II): Synthesis, structural determination, and hydrogen bonding interactions. Inorg. Chim. Acta 2014, 423, 21-30.

Merola, J. S.; Knorr, J. R., Synthesis and reaction chemistry of boryliridium hydride complexes formed by oxidative addition of catecholborane to iridium(I): Lessons for metal-catalyzed hydroboration. J. Organomet. Chem. 2014, 750, 86-97.

Merola, J. S.; Franks, M. A., The basicity of [tris-(trimethylphosphine) (cyclooctadiene)iridium(I)]. J. Organomet. Chem. 2013, 723, 49-55.

Karpin, G. W.; Merola, J. S.; Falkinham, J. O., Transition metal-α-amino acid complexes with antibiotic activity against Mycobacterium spp. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 2013, 57 (7), 3434-3436.

Merola, J. S.; Husebo, T. L.; Selnau, H. E., Dinuclear iridium complexes with unsupported Ir-Cl-Ir bridges. Inorg. Chim. Acta 2012, 390, 33-36.

Merola, J. S.; Husebo, T. L.; Matthews, K. E., Aqueous Organometallic Chemistry of mer-Ir(H)2(PMe3)3X Complexes. Organometallics 2012, 31 (10), 3920-3929.

Grieb, A. L.; Merola, J. S., Reactions of [Ir(COD)(PMe3)3]Cl with heteroaromatic compounds: Formation of an iridathiacycle, an iridaselenacycle and iridaazathiacycles. J. Organomet. Chem. 2012, 713, 163-168.

Berg, M. A. G.; Ritchie, M. K.; Merola, J. S., Synthesis and crystal structures of 3-alkyl-2,4-pentanedionates and 3-phenyl-2,4-pentanedionate of palladium. Polyhedron 2012, 38 (1), 126-130.

Roy, C. P.; Huff, L. A.; Barker, N. A.; Berg, M. A. G.; Merola, J. S., Iridium(III) hydrido amino acid compounds: Chiral complexes and a helical extended lattice. J. Organomet. Chem. 2006, 691 (10), 2270-2276.

Selnau, H. E.; Merola, J. S., Reactions of iridium complex [Ir(COD)(PMe3)3]Cl with benzene, pyridine, furan, and thiophene: carbon-hydrogen cleavage vs. ring opening. Organometallics 1993, 12 (5), 1583-91.

Selnau, H. E.; Merola, J. S., The chemistry of iridium hydride mer-(Me3P)3Ir(H) (2-furyl)(Cl): preferential reaction of an alkyne with an iridium-carbon bond in the presence of an iridium-hydrogen bond. Organometallics 1993, 12 (10), 3800-1.

Le, T. X.; Merola, J. S., Synthesis and reaction chemistry of water-soluble mer- (Me3P)3Ir(H)(H)Cl: activation by water of alkyne insertion into an iridium-hydrogen bond. Organometallics 1993, 12 (10), 3798-9.

Ladipo, F. T.; Merola, J. S., Synthesis, structural characterization, and reactivity of the (η2-benzoato)iridium(III) hydride complex [mer-(Me3P)3Ir(η2– O2CC6H5)(H)][PF6]. Inorg. Chem. 1993, 32 (23), 5201-5.

Ladipo, F. T.; Kooti, M.; Merola, J. S., Oxidative addition of oxygen-hydrogen bonds to iridium(I): synthesis and characterization of (phenolato)- and (carboxylato)iridium(III) hydride complexes. Inorg. Chem. 1993, 32 (9), 1681-8.

Frazier, J. F.; Merola, J. S., Synthesis and structure of five-coordinate tris- phosphine cyclooctadiene iridium complexes. Polyhedron 1992, 11 (22), 2917-27.

Selnau, H. E.; Merola, J. S., Coupling of a vinyl ligand and a vinylidene ligand at an iridium center: generation of an unusual iridium(III) butadienyl complex stabilized by a δ-agostic C-H-Ir interaction. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1991, 113 (10), 4008-9.

Arhancet, J. P.; Davis, M. E.; Merola, J. S.; Hanson, B. E., Supported aqueous- phase catalysts. J. Catal. 1990, 121 (2), 327-39.

Merola, J. S.; Kacmarcik, R. T., Synthesis and reaction chemistry of (η5– indenyl)(cyclooctadiene)iridium: migration of indenyl from iridium to cyclooctadiene. Organometallics 1989, 8 (3), 778-84.

Merola, J. S.; Kacmarcik, R. T.; Van Engen, D., The η5 to η3 conversion in indenyliridium complexes. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1986, 108 (2), 329-31.


Refereed Publications

Since joining Virginia Tech as Faculty

Hobart; Merola; Rogers; Saghal; Mitchell; Florio; Merola Synthesis, Structure, and Catalytic Reactivity of Pd(II) Complexes of Proline and Proline Homologs. Catalysts 2019, 9, 515.

DuChane, C.M.; Brown, L.C.; Dozier, V.S.; Merola, J.S. Synthesis, Characterization, and Antimicrobial Activity of Rh III and Ir III β-Diketonato Piano-Stool Compounds. Organometallics 2018, 37, 530–538.

Brown, L.; Marron, D.; Smith, C.; Merola, J. Crystal structure of the tetramethyl(phenethyl)cyclopentadienylmolybdenumtri-carbonyl dimer. Acta Crystallogr. Sect. E Crystallogr. Commun. 2018, 74, 1017–1020.

Brown, L.C.; DuChane, C.M.; Merola, J.S. Merola Trichloridotris(tetrahydrothiophene-κ S )iridium(III): preparation and comparison with other mer -trichloridotris(tetrahydrothiophene-κ S )metal complexes. Acta Crystallogr. Sect. E Crystallogr. Commun. 2016, 72, 1305–1309.

Morris, D. M.; Merola, J. S.; Parkin, S. Serendipitous Preparation of Fac-(Acetonitrile-κN) trichlorido[(1,2,5,6-G)-Cycloocta-1,5-Diene]-iridium(III). Acta Crystallogr. Sect. E Struct. Reports Online 2015, 71.

Karpin, G. W.; Morris, D. M.; Ngo, M. T.; Merola, J. S.; Falkinham Iii, J. O. Transition Metal Diamine Complexes with Antimicrobial Activity against Staphylococcus Aureus and Methicillin-Resistant S. Aureus (MRSA). Medchemcomm 2015, 6.

Merola, J. S.; Franks, M. A.; Parkin, S. Crystal Structures of Fac-Trichloridotris(trimethyl-Phosphane-κP)rhodium(III) Monohydrate and Fac-Trichloridotris(trimethylphosphane-κP)rhodium(III) Methanol Hemisolvate: Rhodium Structures That Are Isotypic with Their Iridium Analogs. Acta Crystallogr. Sect. E Struct. Reports Online 2015, 71.

Merola, J. S.; Slebodnick, C.; Houser, C. Crystal Structure of Di-μ-Chlorido-Bis[dichloridobis(methanol-κO)iridium(III)] Dihydrate: A Surprisingly Simple chloridoiridium(III) Dinuclear Complex with Methanol Ligands. Acta Crystallogr. Sect. E Crystallogr. Commun. 2015, 71.

Morris, D.M.; McGeagh, M.; De Peña, D.; Merola, J.S. Extending the range of pentasubstituted cyclopentadienyl compounds: The synthesis of a series of tetramethyl(alkyl or aryl)cyclopentadienes (Cp∗R), their iridium complexes and their catalytic activity for asymmetric transfer hydrogenation. Polyhedron 2014, 84, 120–135.

Berg, M. A.; Davidson, J.; Merola, J. S., Trimethylphosphonium trans-tetrachloridobis(trimethylphosphane-κP)iridate(III). Acta Crystallogr., Sect. E: Struct. Rep. Online 2014, 70 (3), m103.

Merola, J.; Husebo, T. L., μ-Oxido-bis[hydridotris(trimethylphosphane-κP)iridium(III)](Ir-Ir) bis(tetrafluoridoborate) dihydrate. Acta Crystallogr., Sect. E: Struct. Rep. Online 2014, 70 (4), m122-m123.

Merola, J. S.; Roy, C. P., Reaction between [Ir(COD)(PMe3)3]Cl and 2-aminopent-4-enoic acid: Tridentate N, O and C bonding. J. Organomet. Chem. 2014, 757, 51-56.

Merola, J. S.; Slebodnick, C.; Berg, M.; Ritchie, M. K., mer-Hydridotris(trimethylphosphane-κP)(d-valinato-κ2 N,O)iridium hexafluoridophosphate dichloromethane 0.675-solvate. Acta Crystallogr., Sect. E: Struct. Rep. Online 2014, 70 (3), m82.

Merola, J. S.; Ladipo, F. T., Alkyne reactions with trimethylphosphine complexes of iridium: Lessons for the catalysis of vinyl ester formation and alkyne dimerization. Polyhedron 2014, 70, 125-132.

Merola, J. S.; Roy, C. P., Hydrido(prolinato-κ2 N,O)tris(trimethylphosphane-κP)iridium(III) hexafluoridophosphate. Acta Crystallogr., Sect. E: Struct. Rep. Online 2014, 70 (2), m73-m74.

Merola, J. S., N 1,N 2-Dimethylethane-1,2-diaminium dichloride. Acta Crystallogr., Sect. E: Struct. Rep. Online 2014, 70 (2), o216.

Merola, J.S.; Grieb, A.W. Crystal structure of chlorido(η2-phenyl isothiocyanate-κ2 C,S)-mer-tris(trimethylphosphane-κP)iridium(I). Acta Crystallogr., Sect. E Struct. Rep. Online 2014, 70, 352–354.

Roy, C. P.; Boyer, P. M.; Merola, J. S., Aquabis(4-methylbenzenesulfonato-κO) (η5-pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)rhodium(III) monohydrate. Acta Crystallogr., Sect. E: Struct. Rep. Online 2013, 69 (5), m259-m260.

Merola, J. S.; Ngo, M.; Karpin, G. W., Bis[bis(pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)cobalt(III)] tetrachloridocobaltate(II) dichloromethane disolvate. Acta Crystallogr., Sect. E: Struct. Rep. Online 2013, 69 (9), m504.

Merola, J. S.; Morris, D.; De Weerd, N., Di-μ2-chlorido-bis[chlorido(η5-2,3,4,5- tetramethyl-1-propylcyclopentadienyl)iridium(III)]. Acta Crystallogr., Sect. E: Struct. Rep. Online 2013, 69 (3), m176.

Merola, J. S.; Franks, M. A.; Frazier, J. F., Synthesis, reactivity and crystal structures of various solvates of fac-tris(trimethylphosphine)trichloroiridium. Polyhedron 2013, 54, 67-73.

Merola, J. S., Bis(η2-ethylene)(η5-indenyl)iridium(I). Acta Crystallogr., Sect. E: Struct. Rep. Online 2013, 69 (10), m547.

Hobart, D. B., Jr.; Merola, J. S., (S)-α-Benzyl-prolinium cis-[(S)-α-benzyl- prolinato]dichloridopalladium(II). Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online 2013, 69 (Pt 5), m261-2.

Hobart, D. B., Jr.; Merola, J. S., (2S,4R)-4-Fluoropyrrolidinium-2-carboxylate. Acta Crystallogr., Sect. E: Struct. Rep. Online 2012, 68 (8), o2490.

Gibson, H. W.; Wang, H.; Slebodnick, C.; Merola, J.; Kassel, W. S.; Rheingold, A. L., Isomeric 2,6-Pyridino-Cryptands Based on Dibenzo-24-crown-8. J. Org. Chem. 2007, 72 (9), 3381-3393.

Gibson, H. W.; Berg, M. A. G.; Dickson, J. C.; Lecavalier, P. R.; Wang, H.; Merola, J. S., Diastereomeric Reissert compounds of isoquinoline and 6,7- dimethoxy-3,4-dihydroisoquinoline in stereoselective synthesis. J Org Chem 2007, 72 (15), 5759-70.

Williams, R. B.; Norris, A.; Slebodnick, C.; Merola, J.; Miller, J. S.; Andriantsiferana, R.; Rasamison, V. E.; Kingston, D. G. I., Cytotoxic Sesquiterpene Lactones from Vernonia pachyclada from the Madagascar Rainforest. J. Nat. Prod. 2005, 68 (9), 1371-1374.

Tyree, W. S.; Slebodnick, C.; Spencer, M. C.; Wang, G.; Merola, J. S.; Yee, G. T., Structure-property correlations in a family of decamethylmetallocenium charge- transfer salt magnets using dialkyl dicyanofumarates as the one-electron acceptors: Ferromagnetism versus metamagnetism. Polyhedron 2005, 24 (16-17), 2133-2140.

Dandekar, S. A.; Greenwood, S. N.; Greenwood, T. D.; Mabic, S.; Merola, J. S.; Tanko, J. M.; Wolfe, J. F., Synthesis of succinimido[3,4-b]indane and 1,2,3,4,5,6- hexahydro-1,5-methano-3-benzazocine-2,4-dione by sequential alkylation and intramolecular arylation of enolates derived from N,N,N’,N-tetramethylbutanediamides and N,N,N’,N’-tetramethylpentanediamides. J. Org. Chem. 1999, 64 (5), 1543-1553.

Bryant, W. S.; Guzei, I. A.; Rheingold, A. L.; Merola, J. S.; Gibson, H. W., A Study of the Complexation of Bis(m-Phenylene) Crown Ethers and Secondary Ammonium Ions. J. Org. Chem. 1998, 63 (22), 7634-7639.

Merola, J. S., Organic chemistry at an iridium center: unusual bond-making and bond-breaking reactions. Curr. Org. Chem. 1997, 1 (3), 235-248.

Kooti, M.; Merola, J. S., Synthesis and characterization of aminocarboxylate iridium(III) complexes. Iran. J. Chem. Chem. Eng. 1997, 16 (1), 4-7.

Nagvekar, D. S.; Delaviz, Y.; Prasad, A.; Merola, J. S.; Marand, H.; Gibson, H. W., Synthesis and Properties of Cholesteryl Esters Bearing 32- and 16-Membered Crown Ethers. J. Org. Chem. 1996, 61 (4), 1211-18.

Boyer, P. M.; Roy, C. P.; Bielski, J. M.; Merola, J. S., Pentamethylcyclopentadienylrhodium bis-carboxylates: monohapto carboxylate coordination, dihapto carboxylate coordination, and water coordination to CpRh. Inorg. Chim. Acta 1996, 245 (1), 7-15.

Merola, J. S.; Husebo, T. L.; Matthews, K. E.; Franks, M. A.; Pafford, R.; Chirik, P., Aqueous chemistry and catalytic activity of organometallic iridium complexes. NATO ASI Ser., Ser. 3 1995, 5 (Aqueous Organometallic Chemistry and Catalysis), 33-45.

Hudlicky, T.; Butora, G.; Fearnley, S. P.; Gum, A. G.; Persichini, P. J., III; Stabile, M. R.; Merola, J. S., Intramolecular Diels-Alder reactions of the furan diene (IMDAF); rapid construction of highly functionalized isoquinoline skeletons. J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans. 1 1995,  (19), 2393-8.

Delaviz, Y.; Merola, J. S.; Berg, M. A. G.; Gibson, H. W., Syntheses, X-ray Structures, Complexation and Thermal Stability Studies of Bis(5-carbomethoxy-1,3- phenylene)-(3x + 2)-crown-x Compounds. J. Org. Chem. 1995, 60 (3), 516-522.

Le, T. X.; Selnau, H. E.; Merola, J. S., An unusual trimerization reaction of an alkyne on iridium. J. Organomet. Chem. 1994, 468 (1-2), 257-64.

Hudlicky, T.; Mandel, M.; Rouden, J.; Lee, R. S.; Bachmann, B.; Dudding, T.; Yost, K. J.; Merola, J. S., Microbial oxidation of aromatics in enantiocontrolled synthesis. Part 1. Expedient and general asymmetric synthesis of inositols and carbohydrates via an unusual oxidation of a polarized diene with potassium permanganate. J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans. 1 1994,  (12), 1553-67.

Frazier, J. F.; Anderson, F. E.; Clark, R.; Merola, J. S., Addition of carbanions to tris(trimethylphosphine)(cyclooctadiene)iridium(I) chloride: three different modes of reaction depending on the nature of the carbanion. Inorg. Chim. Acta 1994, 222 (1-2), 135-43.

Bheda, M. C.; Merola, J. S.; Woodward, W. A.; Vasudevan, V. J.; Gibson, H. W., Crystal structures of 30-crown-10 and its tetrahydrate. J. Org. Chem. 1994, 59 (7), 1694-702.

Smith, G. D.; Hanson, B. E.; Merola, J. S.; Waller, F. J., Palladium methoxide and carbomethoxy complexes: synthesis and molecular structure of (bipy)Pd(CO2CH3)2. Organometallics 1993, 12 (2), 568-70.

Merola, J. S.; Grieb, A.; Ladipo, F. T.; Selnau, H. E., Reactions of heterocyclic aromatic compounds with [Ir(COD)(PMe3)3]Cl: carbon-hydrogen bond cleavage, nitrogen-hydrogen bond cleavage and ring-opening reactions. Prepr. – Am. Chem. Soc., Div. Pet. Chem. 1993, 38 (3), 674-8.

Becker, D. A.; Anderson, F. E., III; McKibben, B. P.; Merola, J. S.; Glass, T. E., Oxocycloalkenyl isoxazolium anhydrobases: synthesis and reactivity studies. Synlett 1993,  (11), 866-8.

Shen, Y. X.; Engen, P. T.; Berg, M. A. G.; Merola, J. S.; Gibson, H. W., Difunctional paraquat dications (viologens) and their crown complexes: a new class of rotaxane monomers. Macromolecules 1992, 25 (10), 2786-8.

Hudlicky, T.; Boros, E. E.; Olivo, H. F.; Merola, J. S., Stereoselective dimerizations of arene-cis-diol acetonides derived from the oxidation of halobenzenes by Pseudomonas putida: absolute configuration of the adducts by x- ray crystallography. J. Org. Chem. 1992, 57 (3), 1026-8.

Jois, Y. H. R.; Berg, M. A. G.; Merola, J. S.; Gibson, H. W., X-ray crystal structure and reactions of 2-cyano-1,3-dibenzoyl-2,3-dihydrobenzimidazole, a novel Reissert compound. Tetrahedron Lett. 1991, 32 (26), 2997-3000.

Huan, G.; Johnson, J. W.; Jacobson, A. J.; Merola, J. S., Hydrothermal synthesis and single-crystal structural characterization of vanadium oxo bipyridine complex, (VO(VO3)6(VO(C10H8N2)2)2. J. Solid State Chem. 1991, 91 (2), 385-9.

Huan, G.; Johnson, J. W.; Jacobson, A. J.; Goshorn, D. P.; Merola, J. S., Hydrothermal synthesis, single-crystal structure, and magnetic properties of vanadyl selenite hydrate (VOSeO3·H2O). Chem. Mater. 1991, 3 (3), 539-41.

Grim, S. O.; Kettler, P. B.; Merola, J. S., Polydentate ligands containing phosphorus XV. The synthesis and structure of η4-1,5-cyclooctadiene-η2– tris(diphenylthiophosphinoyl)methanidoiridium(I), (COD)Ir(TrisS3). Inorg. Chim. Acta 1991, 185 (1), 57-61.

Ladipo, F. T.; Merola, J. S., Oxidative addition of nitrogen-hydrogen bonds to iridium: synthesis and structure of (heterocyclic amine) iridium hydride complexes. Inorg. Chem. 1990, 29 (21), 4172-3.

Knorr, J. R.; Merola, J. S., Synthesis and structure of a [(1,2- phenylenedioxy)boryl]iridium hydride complex: a model system for studying catalytic hydroboration. Organometallics 1990, 9 (12), 3008-10.

Hudlicky, M.; Merola, J. S., New stereospecific syntheses and x-ray diffraction structures of (-)-D-erythro- and (+)-L-threo-4-fluoroglutamic acid. Tetrahedron Lett. 1990, 31 (51), 7403-6.

Huan, G.; Johnson, J. W.; Jacobson, A. J.; Merola, J. S., Hydrothermal synthesis and single-crystal structural characterization of vanadium phenylarsonate V2O4(C6H5AsO3H)·H2O. Chem. Mater. 1990, 2 (6), 719-23.

Huan, G.; Johnson, J. W.; Jacobson, A. J.; Merola, J. S., Hydrothermal synthesis and single-crystal structural characterization of vanadyl methylenediphosphonate ((VO)2[CH2(PO3)2]) tetrahydrate. J. Solid State Chem. 1990, 89 (1), 220-5.

Eichhorn, B. W.; Haushalter, R. C.; Merola, J. S., Synthesis, structure, and properties of hexacarbonyl(η’-ditellurido)telluridodiferrate(2-) containing the unusual μ21-Te22– ligand. Inorg. Chem. 1990, 29 (4), 728-31.

Drumright, R. E.; Mas, R. H.; Merola, J. S.; Tanko, J. M., Interplay between conjugative and steric effects in cyclopropylarenes. J. Org. Chem. 1990, 55 (13), 4098-102.

Bergmeister, J. J., III; Hanson, B. E.; Merola, J. S., Molecular structure of aquatricarbonyldichlororuthenium·diglyme: hydrogen bonding of diglyme to coordinated water. Inorg. Chem. 1990, 29 (23), 4831-3.

Merola, J. S.; Campo, K. S.; Gentile, R. A.; Modrick, M. A., Crystal structure of [Cp2Ti(THF)2] [Co(CO)4]: variation of O-Ti-O angles in the same crystal. Inorg. Chim. Acta 1989, 165 (1), 87-90.

Merola, J. S.; Campo, K. S.; Gentile, R. A., Synthesis and reactivity of titanium cobalt complexes with Ti-O-C-Co bridges. Inorg. Chem. 1989, 28 (15), 2950-4.

Merola, J. S., Carbon-hydrogen addition followed by alkyne insertion into the metal-hydrogen bond of an iridium complex. Organometallics 1989, 8 (12), 2975-7.

Arhancet, J. P.; Davis, M. E.; Merola, J. S.; Hanson, B. E., Hydroformylation by supported aqueous-phase catalysis: a new class of heterogeneous catalysts. Nature (London) 1989, 339 (6224), 454-5.

Sewchok, M. G.; Haushalter, R. C.; Merola, J. S., Synthesis and structures of porphyrin complexes of scandium: ClSc(TTP)·2(C10H7Cl) and O[Sc(TTP)]2·6THF. Inorg. Chim. Acta 1988, 144 (1), 47-51.